Publications

Special Report

Special Report is an English digest of KRIHS research reports, published to provide information about Korea`s key urban and regional issues to interested scholars and policy makers across the world. It highlights the outstanding research studies completed by the research fellows of KRIHS.
  • Special Report (Vol. 44) View Down
    Special Report Vol. 44 (2018)  DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES OF SMART CITY INFRASTRUCTURE FOR URBAN REGENERATIONChapter I. Introduction1. Backgrounds and Objectives of Study 2. Scope and Methodology of the StudyChapter II. Theoretical and Literature Research1. Definition of Smart City Infrastructure2. Definition on Concept of Smart City Infrastructure3. Effect of Smart City Infrastructure Policy in Urban Regeneration4. Differentiation of the StudyChapter III. Target District Status and Citizens Demand Survey1. Selection of the Target District and Framework of Analysis2. Results of Field Investigation3. Results of Citizens Survey4. Target District Analysis Overview and Direction Setting​Chapter IV. Smart City Infrastructure Improvement Plan1. Open Space Network Building2. Hub Space Building3. Citizens Project Plan4. Smart City Improvement Initiatives to Align with Urban Regeneration Chapter V. Conclusions1. Establishment of Institutional Basis of Smart City Infrastructure Building for Urban Regeneration2. Establishment of Institutional Basis for Modularized Smart City Infrastructure3. Assuming as the Same in Applying Regulations ReferencesSummary The operational definition of a smart cell and the process of producing informationabout smart cells can be understood as follows for the purposes of this study. A smartcell is the minimum unit of territory in which individual spatial information (e.g., personalcharacteristics and location) is identifiable in real time.Smart cells can track the behavior of individuals through space by means of lines(representing movement) and dots (representing individuals), which can be seen movingin and out of smart cells. Data for this purpose are collected by mobile phone basestations and processed by wireless service carriers.Smart cells have a number of applications in transportation and spatial planning policy,as data from smart cells are scalable and can thus be extrapolated to different spatialhierarchy levels such as towns and regions.This research sought to analyze activity in the Seoul metropolitan area along gender andage lines at different times of the day. The central focus of activity in the city was foundto shift over the course of a day, from Seoul’s south side at 7 a.m. to north side by noon,and back south again by 6 p.m.On the demographic distribution for age groups, the analysis showed greater activity insouthern Seoul among men, whereas women were more active in the city center.This study tracked human activity in real time in Gangnam-gu (ward), an upscale andbusy area in southern Seoul, using mobile big data generated by smart cells. Humanactivity, the survey found, was highly concentrated near subway stations, especiallyGangnam and Yeoksam. Weekend activity was also monitored in and around SeoulLand, one of the capital region’s most popular amusement parks, and parking lots sawpeak levels of congestion Saturdays between noon and 3 p.m.Smart cells are likely to prove extremely helpful in the event of a natural disaster orother emergency thanks to its ability to provide real-time information on human activityin a specific location, including the number of people and their precise coordinates.This study evaluated the utility of smart cells in a hypothetical disaster scenario in whichan extreme heat wave hits Jongno-gu, an administrative ward in central Seoul. In theevent of a predictable, slow-occurring disaster such as extreme heat wave, smart cellshave applications in three stages: the advance warning stage, in which authorities issuean excessive heat advisory and urge appropriate precautions; the emergency stage, inwhich they prepare to evacuate people in high-risk areas; and the evacuation stage.The scenario analysis demonstrates that smart cells can be used in developing countriesin the following four ways:First, smart cells can help build statistical databases for the purpose of betterunderstanding population trends and the habits of the economically active population.Developing countries tend to lack basic statistical data on such matters because ofbudget constraints and underdeveloped social institutions. As this study shows, wirelesscarriers’ databases and mobile big data can possess significant information about humanactivity in any country with a high rate of mobile phone penetration. By using smart cellsto gather basic social statistics that could otherwise be obtained only through surveys,developing countries stand to save significant time and costs.Smart cells also enable spatial planners to implement policies at different levels withinthe spatial hierarchy (e.g., nation, region or city). National territorial policy transcendsboundaries such as those between new and old city centers. Smart cells can help achievepolicy objectives at different levels in the spatial hierarchy; it commands high value formacro spaces such as countries and regions, as well as micro spaces such as towns anddistricts.Smart cells also have business applications. Merchants who wish to start smallbusinesses can preemptively use the data to reduce their risk of failure. Equipped witha clearer understanding of trends in human activity in a given area, entrepreneurs canbe better prepared to serve their potential markets. In developing countries, manynew entrepreneurs have recently moved to large cities and lack knowledge about theirrespective markets. Information obtained through smart cells can prove indispensablefor such a purpose.Furthermore, smart cells can be incorporated into disaster prevention and responsesystems. Mobile big data is a mobile phone-based system of automatic data collectionthat enables constant monitoring of the number of people in a given area who areespecially vulnerable to a natural or social disaster. Continuous monitoring is aneffective tool for disaster prevention in regions at high risk of natural or social disaster.Developing countries with insufficient databases for basic statistics can use smart cellsin the event of a disaster to forecast the number of casualties and devise effectiveresponses. In the event of a disaster, this technology can send to emergency responseteams highly reliable information in a timely fashion to expedite the decision-makingprocess and minimize casualties.
  • Special Report (Vol. 43) View Down
    Special Report Vol. 43 (2018)  RESEARCH ON PROPOSING OPEN SOURCE GEOSPATIAL POLICY IN ORDER TO IMPROVE GLOBAL GEOSPATIAL COMPETITIVENESSChapter I. Background and objectives of the research1. Growing importance of open source technologies in the era of “participation”and “sharing”2. Objective of research: to propose open source geospatial policies to cope with the technology environment characterized by participation and opennessChapter II. How do open sources contribute to the global geospatial competitiveness?1. Open source geospatial softwares 2. Competitiveness of open source geospatial data 3. Open source gives advantages to venture firms and SMEs in improving the global competitiveness of geospatial data​Chapter III. Policies and trends of the open source geospatial data market 1. Trends of the open source geospatial data market : Korea and overseas 2. Open source geospatial policies at home and abroad 3. Implications Chapter IV. Analysis of geospatial data software companies; technology ownership and market participation1. Characteristics of the geospatial data software sector 2. Status of geospatial data software companies; technology ownership and market participation3. Korea’s contribution to the global open source communities 4. ImplicationsChapter V. Introduction of the open source geospatial policy 1. Considerations2. Open source geospatial policy(proposal) 3. Step-by step introduction Chapter VI. Conclusion1. Summary2. Policy Proposals3. Limitations and future tasks of researchReferencesSummary In the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution which is characterized by ‘participation’ and‘sharing’ more than ever, open source is gaining greater importance in the technologyindustry. Open source technologies available to users for free, accelerates thedevelopment of new technologies based on it in a short period of time, so it is drawinggreater attention as a solution to help small and medium-sized companies lacking sourcetechnologies narrow a technology gap with global market leading companies. This studyproposes open source geospatial policies for the purpose of innovating the nationalgeospatial policy of Korea so as to cope with the changing environment relating to opensource.Research findings on relevant policies and companies show that open source marketsare growing fast at home and abroad, but Korea is lagging behind on both thegovernment’s policies and businesses’ efforts to keep up with them. In surveys andinterview conducted on companies in geospatial software industry, 91.2% of themcalled for government support on open source geospatial policy, however it had notbeen provided any government policies related to open source for geospatial in reality.More than 77% of the companies which developed geospatial software including SIhad not taken a open source license compliance test and hence it could be resulted ina potential risk for them, such as legal disputes associated with non-compliance withlicenses. Moreover, it was a low level that contribution from Korean geospatial society intechnology development activities going on in the global open source communities suchas OSGeo.The global open source market is expected to grow by 15.2% per year according to aforecast of National IT Industry Promotion Agency (NIPA ) of Korea. Countries such asthe European Union, the US , Chile and Mongolia are encouraging open source geospatialpolicy with various reasons, for instance, to reduce costs and to make strengthentheir national technology competitiveness. Open source geospatial policy should beintroduced also to Korea so that Korean companies can cut technology dependence onforeign companies and acquire core manpower on technology. In particular, this studyproposes four action policies in order to enable domestic geospatial companies with lowoverseas presence to promote their global recognition and lead into development ofhigh quality open source technologies armed with strong market competitiveness.Build an ‘open source geospatial policy’ in consideration of the fact that Koreangovernment already has put in place the 「National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act」and a governmental organization dedicated to national geospatial policy.❶ Build an ‘open source geospatial policy’ in consideration of the fact that Koreangovernment already has put in place the 「National Geospatial Data InfrastructureAct」 and a governmental organization dedicated to national geospatial policy.❷ Implement policies to develop and support open source geospatial technologies, suchas converting the government's R&D outputs into open technologies and expandingthe proportion of R&D for open source in geospatial fields.❸ Develop open source technologies and cultivate core manpower (advanceddevelopers, etc.).❹ E ndorse compliance test of open source license mandatory when introducingtechnologies to the public sector.
  • Special Report (Vol. 42) View Down
    Special Report Vol. 42 (2018)  POLICY SUGGESTIONS TO ENHANCE THE FUNCTIONS OF ROADS AS PUBLIC SPACES IN URBAN REGENERATION PROJECTSChapter I. IntroductionChapter II. Public Space Functions of Roads and Limitations of URND Projects1. Public Space Functions of Roads 2. Urban Regeneration New Deal Projects 3. Domestic and Overseas Benchmarks for Promoting Public Space Functions of Roads​Chapter III. Analysis of Use of Public Space Functions of Roads 1. Road and Urban Planning and Design 2. Ongoing Urban Regeneration Projects 3. Proposals for Urban Regeneration New Deal Projects Chapter IV. Policy Suggestions for Utilization of Public Space Functions of Roads 1. Basic Directions 2. Amending Related Regulations  Chapter V. ConclusionsReferencesSummary Analysis of the literature on the use of the public space functions of roads in urbanregeneration projects and assessment of their status quo in case study regions showhow insufficient the utilization of such functions is. Korea’s Road Act lacks a legal basisfor the use of such functions in a way that prioritizes people and urban activities overmotor vehicles. This is because of the dearth of guidelines on the application of theRegulation on the Criteria for Road Structure and Facilities (Article 17). Despite theinextricable relationship between roads and urban regeneration projects in projectzones, central government offices have not reflected this and instead have implementedurban regeneration projects through piecemeal efforts receiving budgetary support.This problematic situation demands a shift toward road policy that extends beyondthe traffic function of roads to utilize their public space functions, developing personorientedspaces for urban activity in accordance with special purpose areas androad functions. Regulations related to the Road Act should be amended to ease theimplementation of urban regeneration projects and raise the synergy effects of land andtransportation policy. Guidelines also needed for both urban regeneration and the useof such road functions are expected to contribute to boosting urban activities withoutdiscrimination and stimulating regional economies.Korea’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) needs to form acooperative system connecting departments tasked with roads, urban planning, andtraffic while simultaneously providing budget to ensure a synergy effect on policy. Pilotprojects for urban regeneration and using the public space functions of roads are alsorequired. The MOLIT Road Policy Bureau must devise a budget support program forsuch functions in urban regions to allow them to raise city competitiveness and improvequality of life.