Special Report

Special Report is an English digest of KRIHS research reports, published to provide information about Korea`s key urban and regional issues to interested scholars and policy makers across the world. It highlights the outstanding research studies completed by the research fellows of KRIHS.
  • Special Report (Vol. 45)
    Special Report (Vol. 45) 첨부파일
    Special Report Vol. 45 (2018)     ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS DEMOGRAPHY DATA FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY Chapter I. Introduction  Chapter II. Changes in Industrial Location Conditions 1. Global Economic Slump and the New Normal  2. Occurrence of Externalities such as Changes in Demographic Structure 3. Manufacturing Slump and Demand for Industrial Locations in Korea 4. Arrival of Industry 4.0 and Transformation Toward a Service-oriented Industry Structure ​ Chapter III. Projection of Industrial Location Trends Using Big Data and SNA 1. The Need for Developing Future Industrial Location Strategies Using Big Data 2. Big Data Collection and Analysis Methods  3. Future Industrial Location Trends Using Big Data and SNA   Chapter IV. Empirical Analysis of Industrial Location Megatrends 1. Empirical Analysis of Industrial Location Megatrends: Need & Objective 2. Empirical Analysis of Industrial Locations Trends    Chapter V. Industrial Location Strategies and Policy Measures in Response to Socioeconomic Changes 1. Industrial Location Strategies in Response to Socioeconomic Changes 2. Industrial Location Policy Measures in Response to Socioeconomic Changes References Summary   2017 will be significant for Korea, as the working age population posts a negative growth for the first time in its history, pushing the country to the edge of a demographic cliff. When slow growth becomes the norm, businesses need to secure competitiveness to survive, and single-person households will likely live closer to their jobs. Automated systems will accelerate the replacement of manual labor by machines and AI. This study projected how rapid socioeconomic changes will change the Korean manufacturing sector environment and systematically analyzed institutional improvements needed for national territory and industrial locations by conducting largescale big data analytics and empirical analyses. This study enhanced the reliability of big data analytics through dual analysis, by conducting big data analytics of future trends and verifying the results with empirical data, and provided quantitative data that supports future policy development. It is imperative to set a clear direction for industrial location policies by focusing on either promoting balanced national development or satisfying business needs. It is also essential to apply different approaches to different types of industrial locations, with regard to the designation process for industrial parks and supportive measures. The UK and Japan have shifted their policy focus from balanced distribution of industrial locations toward the concentration on large cities and the capital areas. As such, this study suggests that Korea should prioritize efficiency over equality in supplying industrial locations. In addition, more comprehensive management is needed to achieve efficient supply of industrial sites that are currently divided across different government ministries. Policy focus should be placed on supplying industrial sites to urban areas, rather than supplying low-cost factory sites to rural areas to ensure that businesses can be more competitively located.
  • Special Report (Vol. 44)
    Special Report (Vol. 44) 첨부파일
    Special Report Vol. 44 (2018)     DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES OF SMART CITY INFRASTRUCTURE FOR URBAN REGENERATION Chapter I. Overview of Research 1. Background and Objectives  2. Research Objective  3. Research Data  Chapter II. Smart Cell Concept 1. What Is a Smart Cell?  2. Setup of Mobile Big Data  3. Characteristics of Mobile Big Data ​ Chapter III. Spatial Distribution of Human Activity Centers 1. Human Activity in Seoul Metropolitan Area: Shifting Centers of Gravity  2. Distribution of Active Population in Gangnam-gu: Place of Residence  3. Changing Centers of Activity in Neighborhood Facilities   Chapter IV. Use of Smart Cells in Emergency Planning 1. Central Points of Activity: Age and Time Distribution  2. Spatial Distribution for Different Age Groups  3. Distribution of Emergency Shelters in Jongno-gu  4. Analysis of Extreme Heat Scenario    Chapter V. Implications for Developing Countries  References Summary   The operational definition of a smart cell and the process of producing information about smart cells can be understood as follows for the purposes of this study. A smart cell is the minimum unit of territory in which individual spatial information (e.g., personal characteristics and location) is identifiable in real time. Smart cells can track the behavior of individuals through space by means of lines (representing movement) and dots (representing individuals), which can be seen moving in and out of smart cells. Data for this purpose are collected by mobile phone base stations and processed by wireless service carriers. Smart cells have a number of applications in transportation and spatial planning policy, as data from smart cells are scalable and can thus be extrapolated to different spatial hierarchy levels such as towns and regions. This research sought to analyze activity in the Seoul metropolitan area along gender and age lines at different times of the day. The central focus of activity in the city was found to shift over the course of a day, from Seoul’s south side at 7 a.m. to north side by noon, and back south again by 6 p.m. On the demographic distribution for age groups, the analysis showed greater activity in southern Seoul among men, whereas women were more active in the city center. This study tracked human activity in real time in Gangnam-gu (ward), an upscale and busy area in southern Seoul, using mobile big data generated by smart cells. Human activity, the survey found, was highly concentrated near subway stations, especially Gangnam and Yeoksam. Weekend activity was also monitored in and around Seoul Land, one of the capital region’s most popular amusement parks, and parking lots saw peak levels of congestion Saturdays between noon and 3 p.m. Smart cells are likely to prove extremely helpful in the event of a natural disaster or other emergency thanks to its ability to provide real-time information on human activity in a specific location, including the number of people and their precise coordinates. This study evaluated the utility of smart cells in a hypothetical disaster scenario in which an extreme heat wave hits Jongno-gu, an administrative ward in central Seoul. In the event of a predictable, slow-occurring disaster such as extreme heat wave, smart cells have applications in three stages: the advance warning stage, in which authorities issue an excessive heat advisory and urge appropriate precautions; the emergency stage, in which they prepare to evacuate people in high-risk areas; and the evacuation stage. The scenario analysis demonstrates that smart cells can be used in developing countries in the following four ways: First, smart cells can help build statistical databases for the purpose of better understanding population trends and the habits of the economically active population. Developing countries tend to lack basic statistical data on such matters because of budget constraints and underdeveloped social institutions. As this study shows, wireless carriers’ databases and mobile big data can possess significant information about human activity in any country with a high rate of mobile phone penetration. By using smart cells to gather basic social statistics that could otherwise be obtained only through surveys, developing countries stand to save significant time and costs. Smart cells also enable spatial planners to implement policies at different levels within the spatial hierarchy (e.g., nation, region or city). National territorial policy transcends boundaries such as those between new and old city centers. Smart cells can help achieve policy objectives at different levels in the spatial hierarchy; it commands high value for macro spaces such as countries and regions, as well as micro spaces such as towns and districts. Smart cells also have business applications. Merchants who wish to start small businesses can preemptively use the data to reduce their risk of failure. Equipped with a clearer understanding of trends in human activity in a given area, entrepreneurs can be better prepared to serve their potential markets. In developing countries, many new entrepreneurs have recently moved to large cities and lack knowledge about their respective markets. Information obtained through smart cells can prove indispensable for such a purpose. Furthermore, smart cells can be incorporated into disaster prevention and response systems. Mobile big data is a mobile phone-based system of automatic data collection that enables constant monitoring of the number of people in a given area who are especially vulnerable to a natural or social disaster. Continuous monitoring is an effective tool for disaster prevention in regions at high risk of natural or social disaster. Developing countries with insufficient databases for basic statistics can use smart cells in the event of a disaster to forecast the number of casualties and devise effective responses. In the event of a disaster, this technology can send to emergency response teams highly reliable information in a timely fashion to expedite the decision-making process and minimize casualties.
  • Special Report (Vol. 43)
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    Special Report Vol. 43 (2018)     RESEARCH ON PROPOSING OPEN SOURCE GEOSPATIAL POLICY IN ORDER TO IMPROVE GLOBAL GEOSPATIAL COMPETITIVENESS Chapter I. Background and objectives of the research 1. Growing importance of open source technologies in the era of “participation”and “sharing” 2. Objective of research: to propose open source geospatial policies to cope with the technology environment characterized by participation and openness Chapter II. How do open sources contribute to the global geospatial competitiveness? 1. Open source geospatial softwares  2. Competitiveness of open source geospatial data  3. Open source gives advantages to venture firms and SMEs in improving the global competitiveness of geospatial data ​ Chapter III. Policies and trends of the open source geospatial data market 1. Trends of the open source geospatial data market : Korea and overseas  2. Open source geospatial policies at home and abroad  3. Implications   Chapter IV. Analysis of geospatial data software companies; technology ownership and market participation 1. Characteristics of the geospatial data software sector  2. Status of geospatial data software companies; technology ownership and market participation 3. Korea’s contribution to the global open source communities  4. Implications Chapter V. Introduction of the open source geospatial policy 1. Summary  2. Policy proposals  3. Limitations and future tasks of research   References Summary   In the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution which is characterized by ‘participation’ and ‘sharing’ more than ever, open source is gaining greater importance in the technology industry. Open source technologies available to users for free, accelerates the development of new technologies based on it in a short period of time, so it is drawing greater attention as a solution to help small and medium-sized companies lacking source technologies narrow a technology gap with global market leading companies. This study proposes open source geospatial policies for the purpose of innovating the national geospatial policy of Korea so as to cope with the changing environment relating to open source. Research findings on relevant policies and companies show that open source markets are growing fast at home and abroad, but Korea is lagging behind on both the government’s policies and businesses’ efforts to keep up with them. In surveys and interview conducted on companies in geospatial software industry, 91.2% of them called for government support on open source geospatial policy, however it had not been provided any government policies related to open source for geospatial in reality. More than 77% of the companies which developed geospatial software including SI had not taken a open source license compliance test and hence it could be resulted in a potential risk for them, such as legal disputes associated with non-compliance with licenses. Moreover, it was a low level that contribution from Korean geospatial society in technology development activities going on in the global open source communities such as OSGeo. The global open source market is expected to grow by 15.2% per year according to a forecast of National IT Industry Promotion Agency (NIPA ) of Korea. Countries such as the European Union, the US , Chile and Mongolia are encouraging open source geospatial policy with various reasons, for instance, to reduce costs and to make strengthen their national technology competitiveness. Open source geospatial policy should be introduced also to Korea so that Korean companies can cut technology dependence on foreign companies and acquire core manpower on technology. In particular, this study proposes four action policies in order to enable domestic geospatial companies with low overseas presence to promote their global recognition and lead into development of high quality open source technologies armed with strong market competitiveness. Build an ‘open source geospatial policy’ in consideration of the fact that Korean government already has put in place the 「National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act」 and a governmental organization dedicated to national geospatial policy. ❶ Build an ‘open source geospatial policy’ in consideration of the fact that Korean government already has put in place the 「National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act」 and a governmental organization dedicated to national geospatial policy. ❷ Implement policies to develop and support open source geospatial technologies, such as converting the government's R&D outputs into open technologies and expanding the proportion of R&D for open source in geospatial fields. ❸ Develop open source technologies and cultivate core manpower (advanced developers, etc.). ❹ E ndorse compliance test of open source license mandatory when introducing technologies to the public sector.
  • Special Report (Vol. 42)
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    Special Report Vol. 42 (2018)     POLICY SUGGESTIONS TO ENHANCE THE FUNCTIONS OF ROADS AS PUBLIC SPACES IN URBAN REGENERATION PROJECTS Chapter I. Introduction Chapter II. Public Space Functions of Roads and Limitations of URND Projects 1. Public Space Functions of Roads  2. Urban Regeneration New Deal Projects  3. Domestic and Overseas Benchmarks for Promoting Public Space Functions of Roads ​ Chapter III. Analysis of Use of Public Space Functions of Roads 1. Road and Urban Planning and Design  2. Ongoing Urban Regeneration Projects  3. Proposals for Urban Regeneration New Deal Projects   Chapter IV. Policy Suggestions for Utilization of Public Space Functions of Roads 1. Basic Directions  2. Amending Related Regulations    Chapter V. Conclusions References Summary   Analysis of the literature on the use of the public space functions of roads in urban regeneration projects and assessment of their status quo in case study regions show how insufficient the utilization of such functions is. Korea’s Road Act lacks a legal basis for the use of such functions in a way that prioritizes people and urban activities over motor vehicles. This is because of the dearth of guidelines on the application of the Regulation on the Criteria for Road Structure and Facilities (Article 17). Despite the inextricable relationship between roads and urban regeneration projects in project zones, central government offices have not reflected this and instead have implemented urban regeneration projects through piecemeal efforts receiving budgetary support. This problematic situation demands a shift toward road policy that extends beyond the traffic function of roads to utilize their public space functions, developing personoriented spaces for urban activity in accordance with special purpose areas and road functions. Regulations related to the Road Act should be amended to ease the implementation of urban regeneration projects and raise the synergy effects of land and transportation policy. Guidelines also needed for both urban regeneration and the use of such road functions are expected to contribute to boosting urban activities without discrimination and stimulating regional economies. Korea’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) needs to form a cooperative system connecting departments tasked with roads, urban planning, and traffic while simultaneously providing budget to ensure a synergy effect on policy. Pilot projects for urban regeneration and using the public space functions of roads are also required. The MOLIT Road Policy Bureau must devise a budget support program for such functions in urban regions to allow them to raise city competitiveness and improve quality of life.
  • Special Report (Vol. 41)
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    ​ Special Report Vol. 41 (2018)     STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE THE SHARED-USE MOBILITY FOR FEEDER SERVICES IN THE SUBURBS OF A METROPOLITAN AREA   Chapter I. Resilience Improvement Measures for Climate Change-related Flood Disaster Response II 1. Introduction  ​Chapter II. Overview of the Shared-use Mobility ​            1. Concepts of the Shared-use Mobility             2. Policy Trends of the Shared-use Mobility ​ Chapter III. A Case Study to Identify the Needs of Improving Metropolitan Feeder Services                       1. Overview of the Case Study 13            2. Analysis on the Transportation Accessibility of Mobility Hubs 14            3. Analysis on the Land-use Patterns of Mobility Hubs 19            4. Categorization of Mobility Hubs 21   Chapter IV. Strategies to Facilitate the Shared-use Mobility for Metropolitan Feeder Services             1. Mode-specific Strategies on the Shared-use Mobility 26           2. Facility Development Strategies on the Shared-use Mobility       Chapter V. Conclusions   ​     ​ Summary      This study was motivated by the necessity of improving the feeder services for the suburban cities of a metropolitan area. The study’s primary concern in this regard is to facilitate the shared-use mobility, defined as the transportation service based on the shared-use economy. Particularly, this study aims at supporting the shared-use mobility as the feeder service to access the mobility hubs, which are typically formed at the major transit stations for metropolitan intercity trips. As the study’s main outputs, the shared-use mobility strategies were derived by considering both the mode-specific needs of shared-use mobility as well as the characteristics of mobility hubs. In this regard, this study focused on the three modes: car sharing, bikes haring, and ridesharing. The needs of these three modes were identified by reviewing a previous survey as well as relevant foreign policies to shed light on suitable service strategies. In addition, strategies on the facility development were derived to aid the operations of shared-use mobility. For this purpose, a framework to quantify the characteristics of mobility hubs were developed and then applied to a case study of Seoul metropolitan area for an illustration. In the case study, 12 mobility hubs were grouped into 4 types, which are ‘metropolitan hubs with high-density development’, ‘metropolitan hubs with low-density development’, ‘municipal hubs with high-density development’, and ‘municipal hubs with low-density development.’ Based on this categorization, investment strategies were recommended by identifying highly prioritized modes of the shared-use mobility at the individual hubs.This study has some limitations although it has contributions in establishing the procedure to analyze the needs of introducing the shared-use mobility for the metropolitan feeder services. Most of all, the mobility hubs could not be categorized in a statistically robust manner because this study selected only 12 hub samples for the sake of illustration. In light of this, additional analyses are worthwhile to confirm or revise this study’s results by analyzing relevant data associated with a more extensive set of hub samples. Moreover, further research is required to quantify the impacts of introducing the shared-use feeder services on the metropolitan transportation system as a whole.
  • Special Report (Vol. 40)
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    Special Report Vol. 40 (2018)     RESEARCH ON REGIONAL RESILIENCE IMPROVEMENT COPING WITH FLOODING DISASTER BY CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECT (II)   Chapter I. Resilience Improvement Measures for Climate Change-related Flood Disaster Response II 1. Research Overview ​ Chapter II. Trends in Resilience Policies and the “Resilient City” Concept  1. Overseas Trends in Resilience Strengthening Policies for 11 Disaster Prevention 2. Trends in Disaster Prevention Policies for Korean Cities 13 3. The Resilient City Concept ​ Chapter III. Current Damage Abatement Capacity Policies and Avenues for Improvement 1. Urban Planning for Disaster Prevention in Korea 2. Urban Regeneration Considering Disaster Prevention 3. Avenues for Improvement Damage Abatement Capacity Development Policies   Chapter IV. Current Damage Recovery Capacity Policies and Avenues for Improvement 1. Transportation Planning for Disaster Prevention 2. Pre-Disaster Recovery Plan 3. Damage Recovery Capacity Reinforcement Policies: Avenues for Improvement   Chapter V. Major Policy Proposals for Achieving Resilient Cities              1. Developing All-purpose Flood Risk Data            2. Establishing a Pan-governmental Consultation System            3. Introducing Policies to Improve Damage Recovery Capacity            4. Institutionalizing Resilience Assessments and Establishing Guidelines ​ ​Chapter VI. Conclusion ​ Summary      Recently, the risk of mega flooding disaster has been increased by climate change and urbanization effect. In order to reduce the damage by flooding disaster, resilience concept has been introduced to disaster prevention field mainly in international organizations and advanced countries. The flooding damage by Typhoon Chaba in 2016 and Cheonan Power Exchange in 2017 showed that the risk of flooding disaster in Korea is increasing and that the flooding disaster could cause the Natech disaster. In this context, this research was conducted in collaboration with KRIHS(Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements) and the Woodrow Wilson Center in U.S., which has recently developed and operated resilience reinforcement research and policies. This research was conducted as two years research. In the first year research, the resilience assessment method for disaster prevention field was developed and applied. The main goal of the second year research is to improve reinforcement of the urban resilience as the urban planning aspect. In this research, resilience is divided into the capacity for damage abatement and the capacity for damage recovery, based on the characteristics of resilience. This research present the problems and the direction of improvement of the current policy related with the capacity for damage abatement and recovery. Based on the direction of improvement of policy, the legal system improvement method is suggested. For the policy related with the capacity for damage abatement, the urban planning for disaster prevention and urban regeneration considering disaster prevention are selected and investigated for searching the problem of operation and suggesting the improvement method. Now, in Korea, the policy related with the capacity for damage recovery is not actively settled yet, so this paper suggest the direction of Korea’s introduction of related systems, based on the overseas cases. For the policy related with the capacity for damage recovery, the transportation planning considering disaster prevention and PDRP(Pre-Disaster Recovery Plan) in U.S. are selected.
  • Special Report (Vol. 39)
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    Special Report Vol. 39 (2017)     Housing Support for Young Generation in Korea Responding to Socioeconomic Changes   Chapter I. Introduction   Chapter II. Changing Environment for Housing Policy 1. The Development of Housing Policy 2. Changing Household Structures: Sharp Rise in Single-person Households, Sharp Dip in Average Household Size 3. Late Marriage, Lifelong Singlehood, Low Birth Rate, and Aging 4. Need to Prepare for the Future   Chapter III. Residential Conditions for Young Households and the Severity of the Housing Cost Burden 1. Instability to Entering the Housing Market 2. Limited Accessibility to Public Fund and Increased Reliance on Parents 3. Issues in the Housing Finding, Leasing, and Residing and Subsequent Effects 4. Vulnerable Housing Condition 5. Threat of Housing Cost Burden to Expand Working Poor   Chapter IV. Policy Measures to Support Young Generation 1. Central Government Policy toward Housing Support for Young Generation 2. Local Government Policy toward Housing Support for the Young Generation   Chapter V. Future Directions of Housing Support for Young Generation    1. Basic Principles of Support 2. Policy Measures for Housing Support for the Young Generation Summary        Young Single Adults in Korea recently have faced extended transitional period due to longer education, higher housing price, and gloomy outlook of job market situation. During last three decades, one-person households have emerged from the least popular household type to the most prevalent one, which leads to huge impact on housing demand and policy. However, due to the severe housing shortage, housing policy in Korea has been focused on the massive production of new apartments, support for the households with dependents, and owner-occupation during last several decades. As a result, single person households and young people have hardly regarded as the priority target group to be considered and rather excluded from the policy consideration, even though it is not intended to. Moreover, housing price is not affordable for young-single and private rental market requires higher deposit and/or higher monthly rent for young generation including college students, newly graduate, and newly-weds.       This research is to investigate the housing conditions of young-single in Korea including housing tenure, affordability, rent burden, living conditions, and their housing policy needs. In addition, questionnaire survey results are incorporated to explore their needs and difficulties in the process of searching, contracting, residing in the private rental market. Finally, the author investigates the question on how the current housing situation has impact on the future life course decision such as seeing someone, getting marriage, having and raising a child, and possessing homeownership.
  • Special Report (Vol. 38)
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    Special Report Vol. 38 (2017)     Urban Shrinkage in Korea and Related Policy Tasks   Chapter I. Introduction     1. Research Background and Goals 2. Research Scope and Methods   Chapter II. Understanding Korea’s Shrinking Cities 1. Redefining Shrinking Cities 2. Typology of Korea’s Shrinking Cities 3. Characteristics of Korea’s Shrinking Cities 4. Conclusion   Chapter III. The Urban Shrinkage Mechanism in Korea 1. The Urban Shrinkage Mechanism Debate 2. Path Analysis on Urban Shrinkage Mechanism 3. Conclusion   Chapter IV. Policy Tasks for Korea’s Shrinking Cities 1. Right-Sizing Reducing City Size to Suit Population Shrinkage 2. Service Efficiency: Efficiently Supplying Public Services 3. Neighborhood Stabilization: Stabilizing Neighborhoods Threatened with Extinction   Chapter V. Conclusion & Discussion   Summary ​        In many shrinking cities around the world, population loss has resulted in a shortage of tax revenue, while financial conditions have been exacerbated by the costs of maintaining oversupplies of housing and infrastructure. Having entered a situation of severe population decline, Korea’s provincial cities are not free from the shrinkage phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to attempt an empirical analysis of shrinkage status and mechanisms for Korean cities, using the resulting findings to identify policy tasks for future pursuit by shrinking cities.         The 20 shrinking cities selected for this study exhibit an aging trend and increase in the percentage of senior citizens living alone, increased multi-family housing vacancy rates, urban sprawl into peripheral regions, deficit spending on public facility management, and the collapse of communities in neighborhoods threatened with extinction. Urban shrinkage in Korea was also found to be the result of a complex range of factors, including job loss, low fertility, and suburbanization/sprawl. Through their mutual influences, these factors were found to result in deteriorating financial conditions.        Based on these analysis findings, the study suggests three policy approaches to escape the vicious cycle of urban shrinkage: right-sizing, service efficiency, and neighborhood stabilization. The most crucial step toward achieving these is acknowledgement of the shrinkage phenomenon. Based on this understanding, consideration must be given to identifying ways of improving quality of life for remaining residents rather than to reckless efforts to increase city size. ​
  • Special Report (Vol. 37)
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    Special Report Vol. 37 (2017) Development Cooperation Between South Korea and the Latin America for Urban Management Chapter I. Introduction     1. Background and Necessity of Research 2. Objective 3. Scope and Methodology 4. Research Flow Chapter II. Characteristics of Urbanization in LAC Countries  1. General Characteristics of Urbanization in LAC Countries 2. Analysis of Urban Conditions in Major LAC Countries Chapter III. Analysis of Key Urban Problems in Priority Partner Countries    1. Mexico  2. Colombia 3. Paraguay 4. Key Causes of Urban Problems Chapter IV. Analysis of Urban Problems in Priority Partner Countries  1. Direction for Korea and LAC Countries to Address Urban Problems  2. Key Measures of Cooperation 3. Cooperation Tasks Chapter V. Conclusion   Summary           In the 20th century, Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LAC) experienced rapid urbanization that raised the region’s urbanization rate to nearly 80%, about twice that of Asia and Africa. A combined 6.8 million people in LAC migrated from rural to urban areas every year, and this trend boosted the number of not only megacities but also small and mid-size cities in the region. Such rapid urbanization caused diverse urban challenges such as the growth of slums, heavy traffic congestion, housing shortage, and low quality of infrastructure. Many LAC countries, however, lacked adequate regulatory frameworks and planning systems to effectively respond to urban problems caused by the rapid urbanization.             Korea in the 1970s and 1980s experienced fast and sustained economic growth, urbanization, and most of the urban problems many developing countries now face in their development stage. Hence many developing countries are greatly interested in learning from Korea’s development model. Korea has a crucial task is to share Korea’s knowhow to contribute to international development.             The overall objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics and challenges of urbanization in LAC countries and propose promising areas and measures in development cooperation between Korea and LAC countries. Most LAC countries have shown high urbanization rates and high urban primacy, but several of them have failed to achieve economic growth proportional to their high urbanization rates.             Chapter II diagnoses the main urban issues that 17 LAC countries are facing by using 12 indicators in four areas: residential environment, inclusive development, transportation and infrastructure, and environmental sustainability. The analysis of the indicators and urbanization rates of 17 LAC countries have led to the identification of four types of countries and three priority partner countries: Colombia, Mexico, and Paraguay.             Chapter III analyzes the urbanization trends and the main urban challenges of the three priority partner countries according to the following four categories: i) residential environment : qualitative housing deficit and informal housing; ii) inclusive development: regional inequality, income disparity, and development gap between urban and rural areas; iii) transportation and infrastructure: low quality of public transit systems in megacity regions and heavy traffic congestion; and iv) environmental sustainability: air and water pollution, disaster adaptation and mitigation, and urban sprawl. The three main causes of urban challenges are also identified: the lack of adequate integrated planning, legal and regulatory framework, and financial resources.             Chapter IV presents strategic objectives and areas and implementation strategies for cooperation between Korea and each of the three target LAC countries. Mexico urgently needs to set up an integrated public transport system and a transit system for metropolitan areas and proper governance to manage both systems. Also critical is the formulation and updating of land use planning to efficiently manage urban sprawl in megacities. Colombia must facilitate public financing and private investment to promote projects for urban transportation infrastructure, and Korea’s extensive experience in this sector can serve as a good precedent. Improvement of informal housing settlements in urban areas and low-income housing should be a strategic area of collaboration. Paraguay should devise a master plan and legal and regulatory framework to manage the Asuncion metropolitan area and prevent further urban sprawl, as well as a master plan for flood-prone areas in Asuncion to improve housing and prevent damages from natural disasters.             To facilitate deeper development cooperation between Korea and LAC countries, understanding the three LAC countries conditions and their main challenges is vital, in addition to developing a cooperative agenda tailored for each nation. Another productive approach would be to develop tripartite cooperation among Korea, a middle income LAC country, and a low-income LAC nation to transmit knowledge more efficiently.             This research took a great leap from taking an usual one-sided transfer of Korean experiences to drawing viable cooperation projects by employing partner countries’ context. This research also proposed a diagnostic assessment tool for analysis on urban conditions which also could be applied to research for other countries. Through this study, it created the data for indicators diagnosing urban conditions and for urban challenges in three LAC countries. Once the supplements are given to upgrade the details of the data, it is recommended to conduct even deeper analysis on each specific topic to initiate more viable international cooperation projects.
  • Special Report (Vol. 36)
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    Special Report (Vol. 35) - WooSuk Han Regional Resilience Improvement Coped With Flooding Disaster by Climate Chnge Effect Chapter I. Research Overview   Chapter II. The Resilience Concept and Introduction   Chapter III. Domestic and Foreign Examples of Resilience Assessment and Implications   Chapter IV. The Development and Application of the Resilience Assessment Methodology Chapter V. Ideas for Improving Resilience in Response to Flooding-related Disasters
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