Special Report

Special Report is an English digest of KRIHS research reports, published to provide information about Korea`s key urban and regional issues to interested scholars and policy makers across the world. It highlights the outstanding research studies completed by the research fellows of KRIHS.
  • Special Report (Vol. 41)
    Special Report (Vol. 41) 첨부파일
    ​ Special Report Vol. 41 (2018)     STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE THE SHARED-USE MOBILITY FOR FEEDER SERVICES IN THE SUBURBS OF A METROPOLITAN AREA   Chapter I. Resilience Improvement Measures for Climate Change-related Flood Disaster Response II 1. Introduction  ​Chapter II. Overview of the Shared-use Mobility ​            1. Concepts of the Shared-use Mobility             2. Policy Trends of the Shared-use Mobility ​ Chapter III. A Case Study to Identify the Needs of Improving Metropolitan Feeder Services                       1. Overview of the Case Study 13            2. Analysis on the Transportation Accessibility of Mobility Hubs 14            3. Analysis on the Land-use Patterns of Mobility Hubs 19            4. Categorization of Mobility Hubs 21   Chapter IV. Strategies to Facilitate the Shared-use Mobility for Metropolitan Feeder Services             1. Mode-specific Strategies on the Shared-use Mobility 26           2. Facility Development Strategies on the Shared-use Mobility       Chapter V. Conclusions   ​     ​ Summary      This study was motivated by the necessity of improving the feeder services for the suburban cities of a metropolitan area. The study’s primary concern in this regard is to facilitate the shared-use mobility, defined as the transportation service based on the shared-use economy. Particularly, this study aims at supporting the shared-use mobility as the feeder service to access the mobility hubs, which are typically formed at the major transit stations for metropolitan intercity trips. As the study’s main outputs, the shared-use mobility strategies were derived by considering both the mode-specific needs of shared-use mobility as well as the characteristics of mobility hubs. In this regard, this study focused on the three modes: car sharing, bikes haring, and ridesharing. The needs of these three modes were identified by reviewing a previous survey as well as relevant foreign policies to shed light on suitable service strategies. In addition, strategies on the facility development were derived to aid the operations of shared-use mobility. For this purpose, a framework to quantify the characteristics of mobility hubs were developed and then applied to a case study of Seoul metropolitan area for an illustration. In the case study, 12 mobility hubs were grouped into 4 types, which are ‘metropolitan hubs with high-density development’, ‘metropolitan hubs with low-density development’, ‘municipal hubs with high-density development’, and ‘municipal hubs with low-density development.’ Based on this categorization, investment strategies were recommended by identifying highly prioritized modes of the shared-use mobility at the individual hubs.This study has some limitations although it has contributions in establishing the procedure to analyze the needs of introducing the shared-use mobility for the metropolitan feeder services. Most of all, the mobility hubs could not be categorized in a statistically robust manner because this study selected only 12 hub samples for the sake of illustration. In light of this, additional analyses are worthwhile to confirm or revise this study’s results by analyzing relevant data associated with a more extensive set of hub samples. Moreover, further research is required to quantify the impacts of introducing the shared-use feeder services on the metropolitan transportation system as a whole.
  • Special Report (Vol. 40)
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    Special Report Vol. 40 (2018)     RESEARCH ON REGIONAL RESILIENCE IMPROVEMENT COPING WITH FLOODING DISASTER BY CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECT (II)   Chapter I. Resilience Improvement Measures for Climate Change-related Flood Disaster Response II 1. Research Overview ​ Chapter II. Trends in Resilience Policies and the “Resilient City” Concept  1. Overseas Trends in Resilience Strengthening Policies for 11 Disaster Prevention 2. Trends in Disaster Prevention Policies for Korean Cities 13 3. The Resilient City Concept ​ Chapter III. Current Damage Abatement Capacity Policies and Avenues for Improvement 1. Urban Planning for Disaster Prevention in Korea 2. Urban Regeneration Considering Disaster Prevention 3. Avenues for Improvement Damage Abatement Capacity Development Policies   Chapter IV. Current Damage Recovery Capacity Policies and Avenues for Improvement 1. Transportation Planning for Disaster Prevention 2. Pre-Disaster Recovery Plan 3. Damage Recovery Capacity Reinforcement Policies: Avenues for Improvement   Chapter V. Major Policy Proposals for Achieving Resilient Cities              1. Developing All-purpose Flood Risk Data            2. Establishing a Pan-governmental Consultation System            3. Introducing Policies to Improve Damage Recovery Capacity            4. Institutionalizing Resilience Assessments and Establishing Guidelines ​ ​Chapter VI. Conclusion ​ Summary      Recently, the risk of mega flooding disaster has been increased by climate change and urbanization effect. In order to reduce the damage by flooding disaster, resilience concept has been introduced to disaster prevention field mainly in international organizations and advanced countries. The flooding damage by Typhoon Chaba in 2016 and Cheonan Power Exchange in 2017 showed that the risk of flooding disaster in Korea is increasing and that the flooding disaster could cause the Natech disaster. In this context, this research was conducted in collaboration with KRIHS(Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements) and the Woodrow Wilson Center in U.S., which has recently developed and operated resilience reinforcement research and policies. This research was conducted as two years research. In the first year research, the resilience assessment method for disaster prevention field was developed and applied. The main goal of the second year research is to improve reinforcement of the urban resilience as the urban planning aspect. In this research, resilience is divided into the capacity for damage abatement and the capacity for damage recovery, based on the characteristics of resilience. This research present the problems and the direction of improvement of the current policy related with the capacity for damage abatement and recovery. Based on the direction of improvement of policy, the legal system improvement method is suggested. For the policy related with the capacity for damage abatement, the urban planning for disaster prevention and urban regeneration considering disaster prevention are selected and investigated for searching the problem of operation and suggesting the improvement method. Now, in Korea, the policy related with the capacity for damage recovery is not actively settled yet, so this paper suggest the direction of Korea’s introduction of related systems, based on the overseas cases. For the policy related with the capacity for damage recovery, the transportation planning considering disaster prevention and PDRP(Pre-Disaster Recovery Plan) in U.S. are selected.
  • Special Report (Vol. 39)
    Special Report (Vol. 39) 첨부파일
    Special Report Vol. 39 (2017)     Housing Support for Young Generation in Korea Responding to Socioeconomic Changes   Chapter I. Introduction   Chapter II. Changing Environment for Housing Policy 1. The Development of Housing Policy 2. Changing Household Structures: Sharp Rise in Single-person Households, Sharp Dip in Average Household Size 3. Late Marriage, Lifelong Singlehood, Low Birth Rate, and Aging 4. Need to Prepare for the Future   Chapter III. Residential Conditions for Young Households and the Severity of the Housing Cost Burden 1. Instability to Entering the Housing Market 2. Limited Accessibility to Public Fund and Increased Reliance on Parents 3. Issues in the Housing Finding, Leasing, and Residing and Subsequent Effects 4. Vulnerable Housing Condition 5. Threat of Housing Cost Burden to Expand Working Poor   Chapter IV. Policy Measures to Support Young Generation 1. Central Government Policy toward Housing Support for Young Generation 2. Local Government Policy toward Housing Support for the Young Generation   Chapter V. Future Directions of Housing Support for Young Generation    1. Basic Principles of Support 2. Policy Measures for Housing Support for the Young Generation Summary        Young Single Adults in Korea recently have faced extended transitional period due to longer education, higher housing price, and gloomy outlook of job market situation. During last three decades, one-person households have emerged from the least popular household type to the most prevalent one, which leads to huge impact on housing demand and policy. However, due to the severe housing shortage, housing policy in Korea has been focused on the massive production of new apartments, support for the households with dependents, and owner-occupation during last several decades. As a result, single person households and young people have hardly regarded as the priority target group to be considered and rather excluded from the policy consideration, even though it is not intended to. Moreover, housing price is not affordable for young-single and private rental market requires higher deposit and/or higher monthly rent for young generation including college students, newly graduate, and newly-weds.       This research is to investigate the housing conditions of young-single in Korea including housing tenure, affordability, rent burden, living conditions, and their housing policy needs. In addition, questionnaire survey results are incorporated to explore their needs and difficulties in the process of searching, contracting, residing in the private rental market. Finally, the author investigates the question on how the current housing situation has impact on the future life course decision such as seeing someone, getting marriage, having and raising a child, and possessing homeownership.
  • Special Report (Vol. 38)
    Special Report (Vol. 38) 첨부파일
    Special Report Vol. 38 (2017)     Urban Shrinkage in Korea and Related Policy Tasks   Chapter I. Introduction     1. Research Background and Goals 2. Research Scope and Methods   Chapter II. Understanding Korea’s Shrinking Cities 1. Redefining Shrinking Cities 2. Typology of Korea’s Shrinking Cities 3. Characteristics of Korea’s Shrinking Cities 4. Conclusion   Chapter III. The Urban Shrinkage Mechanism in Korea 1. The Urban Shrinkage Mechanism Debate 2. Path Analysis on Urban Shrinkage Mechanism 3. Conclusion   Chapter IV. Policy Tasks for Korea’s Shrinking Cities 1. Right-Sizing Reducing City Size to Suit Population Shrinkage 2. Service Efficiency: Efficiently Supplying Public Services 3. Neighborhood Stabilization: Stabilizing Neighborhoods Threatened with Extinction   Chapter V. Conclusion & Discussion   Summary ​        In many shrinking cities around the world, population loss has resulted in a shortage of tax revenue, while financial conditions have been exacerbated by the costs of maintaining oversupplies of housing and infrastructure. Having entered a situation of severe population decline, Korea’s provincial cities are not free from the shrinkage phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to attempt an empirical analysis of shrinkage status and mechanisms for Korean cities, using the resulting findings to identify policy tasks for future pursuit by shrinking cities.         The 20 shrinking cities selected for this study exhibit an aging trend and increase in the percentage of senior citizens living alone, increased multi-family housing vacancy rates, urban sprawl into peripheral regions, deficit spending on public facility management, and the collapse of communities in neighborhoods threatened with extinction. Urban shrinkage in Korea was also found to be the result of a complex range of factors, including job loss, low fertility, and suburbanization/sprawl. Through their mutual influences, these factors were found to result in deteriorating financial conditions.        Based on these analysis findings, the study suggests three policy approaches to escape the vicious cycle of urban shrinkage: right-sizing, service efficiency, and neighborhood stabilization. The most crucial step toward achieving these is acknowledgement of the shrinkage phenomenon. Based on this understanding, consideration must be given to identifying ways of improving quality of life for remaining residents rather than to reckless efforts to increase city size. ​
  • Special Report (Vol. 37)
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    Special Report Vol. 37 (2017) Development Cooperation Between South Korea and the Latin America for Urban Management Chapter I. Introduction     1. Background and Necessity of Research 2. Objective 3. Scope and Methodology 4. Research Flow Chapter II. Characteristics of Urbanization in LAC Countries  1. General Characteristics of Urbanization in LAC Countries 2. Analysis of Urban Conditions in Major LAC Countries Chapter III. Analysis of Key Urban Problems in Priority Partner Countries    1. Mexico  2. Colombia 3. Paraguay 4. Key Causes of Urban Problems Chapter IV. Analysis of Urban Problems in Priority Partner Countries  1. Direction for Korea and LAC Countries to Address Urban Problems  2. Key Measures of Cooperation 3. Cooperation Tasks Chapter V. Conclusion   Summary           In the 20th century, Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LAC) experienced rapid urbanization that raised the region’s urbanization rate to nearly 80%, about twice that of Asia and Africa. A combined 6.8 million people in LAC migrated from rural to urban areas every year, and this trend boosted the number of not only megacities but also small and mid-size cities in the region. Such rapid urbanization caused diverse urban challenges such as the growth of slums, heavy traffic congestion, housing shortage, and low quality of infrastructure. Many LAC countries, however, lacked adequate regulatory frameworks and planning systems to effectively respond to urban problems caused by the rapid urbanization.             Korea in the 1970s and 1980s experienced fast and sustained economic growth, urbanization, and most of the urban problems many developing countries now face in their development stage. Hence many developing countries are greatly interested in learning from Korea’s development model. Korea has a crucial task is to share Korea’s knowhow to contribute to international development.             The overall objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics and challenges of urbanization in LAC countries and propose promising areas and measures in development cooperation between Korea and LAC countries. Most LAC countries have shown high urbanization rates and high urban primacy, but several of them have failed to achieve economic growth proportional to their high urbanization rates.             Chapter II diagnoses the main urban issues that 17 LAC countries are facing by using 12 indicators in four areas: residential environment, inclusive development, transportation and infrastructure, and environmental sustainability. The analysis of the indicators and urbanization rates of 17 LAC countries have led to the identification of four types of countries and three priority partner countries: Colombia, Mexico, and Paraguay.             Chapter III analyzes the urbanization trends and the main urban challenges of the three priority partner countries according to the following four categories: i) residential environment : qualitative housing deficit and informal housing; ii) inclusive development: regional inequality, income disparity, and development gap between urban and rural areas; iii) transportation and infrastructure: low quality of public transit systems in megacity regions and heavy traffic congestion; and iv) environmental sustainability: air and water pollution, disaster adaptation and mitigation, and urban sprawl. The three main causes of urban challenges are also identified: the lack of adequate integrated planning, legal and regulatory framework, and financial resources.             Chapter IV presents strategic objectives and areas and implementation strategies for cooperation between Korea and each of the three target LAC countries. Mexico urgently needs to set up an integrated public transport system and a transit system for metropolitan areas and proper governance to manage both systems. Also critical is the formulation and updating of land use planning to efficiently manage urban sprawl in megacities. Colombia must facilitate public financing and private investment to promote projects for urban transportation infrastructure, and Korea’s extensive experience in this sector can serve as a good precedent. Improvement of informal housing settlements in urban areas and low-income housing should be a strategic area of collaboration. Paraguay should devise a master plan and legal and regulatory framework to manage the Asuncion metropolitan area and prevent further urban sprawl, as well as a master plan for flood-prone areas in Asuncion to improve housing and prevent damages from natural disasters.             To facilitate deeper development cooperation between Korea and LAC countries, understanding the three LAC countries conditions and their main challenges is vital, in addition to developing a cooperative agenda tailored for each nation. Another productive approach would be to develop tripartite cooperation among Korea, a middle income LAC country, and a low-income LAC nation to transmit knowledge more efficiently.             This research took a great leap from taking an usual one-sided transfer of Korean experiences to drawing viable cooperation projects by employing partner countries’ context. This research also proposed a diagnostic assessment tool for analysis on urban conditions which also could be applied to research for other countries. Through this study, it created the data for indicators diagnosing urban conditions and for urban challenges in three LAC countries. Once the supplements are given to upgrade the details of the data, it is recommended to conduct even deeper analysis on each specific topic to initiate more viable international cooperation projects.
  • Special Report (Vol. 36)
    Special Report (Vol. 36) 첨부파일
    Special Report (Vol. 35) - WooSuk Han Regional Resilience Improvement Coped With Flooding Disaster by Climate Chnge Effect Chapter I. Research Overview   Chapter II. The Resilience Concept and Introduction   Chapter III. Domestic and Foreign Examples of Resilience Assessment and Implications   Chapter IV. The Development and Application of the Resilience Assessment Methodology Chapter V. Ideas for Improving Resilience in Response to Flooding-related Disasters
  • Special Report (Vol. 35)
    Special Report (Vol. 35) 첨부파일
    Special Report (Vol.35) - Hoje Kang Industrial Location Strategy Toward Future Socio-economic Chnages Chapter I. Introduction   Chapter II. Changes in Industrial Location Conditions   Chapter III. Projection of Industrial Location Trends Using Big Data and SNA   Chapter IV. Empirical Analysis of Industrial Location Megatrends   Chapter V. Industrial Location Strategies and Policy Measures in Response to Socioeconomic Changes
  • Special Report (Vol. 34)
    Special Report (Vol. 34) 첨부파일
    The Promise of Big Data in Real Estate Policy: Identifying Problems and Workable Solutions in Real Time Special Report (Vol.34)    -   Daejong Kim   Chapter I. Introduction 1. Background and Purpose 2. Scope and Methodology Chapter II. The Concept of Big Data and Real Estate Big Data 1. The Concept of Big Data 2. Types of Big Data 3. Big Data and Spatial Big Data 4. Major Big Data as Related to Real Estate Chapter III. Using Big Data to Determine the Effectiveness of Real Estate Policy 1. Methods of Assessing Effectiveness of Real Estate Policy 2. Establishment of Big Data 3. Big Data Analytics Chapter IV. Analysis of Responses to and Demand for Real Estate Policy 1. Analysis of Public Opinion on Real Estate Policy 2. How Effective is Real Estate Policy? 3. Identifying Key Issues in Real Estate Policy Chapter V. Conclusion 1. Utilization of Big Data and Its Implications 2. Limitations of Big Data Utilization 3. Recommendations?
  • Special Report (Vol. 33)
    Special Report (Vol. 33) 첨부파일
      Application of Smart Cells to Spatial Plans   Special Report (Vol.33)    -   Jonghak Kim   Chapter I. Overview of Research 1. Background and Objectives 2. Research Objective 3. Research Data Chapter II. Smart Cell Concept 1. What is a Smart Cell? 2. Setup of Mobile Big Data 3. Characteristics of Mobile Big Data Chapter III. Spatial Distribution of Human Activity Centers 1. Human Activity in Seoul Metropolitan Area: Shifting Centers of Gravity 2. Distribution of Active Population in Gangnam-gu: Place of Residence 3. Changing Centers of Activity in Neighborhood Facilities Chapter IV. Use of Smart Cells in Emergency Planning 1. Central Points of Activity : Age and Time Distribution 2. Spatial Distribution for Different Age Groups 3. Distribution of Emergency Shelters in Jongno-gu 4. Analysis of Extreme Heat Scenario Chapter V. Implications for Developing Countries?
  • Special Report (Vol. 32)
    Special Report (Vol. 32) 첨부파일
    A Study on the Usabiity of Big Data to Enhance Reliability of Regional Travel Demand Forecasting     Special Report (Vol.32)    -   Yoon, Seo-youn   Chapter I. Research Overview 1. Research Background 2. Research Scope and Expected Policy Effects   Chapter II. Interregional Traffic Demand Forecasting : Conditions and Problems 1. Korea Transportation Database 2. Error-generating Factors in Travel Demand Estimates   Chapter III. Consideration of Applicability of Big data to Forecasting of Interregional Travel Demand 1. Uses of Transportation-related Big Data 2. Ideas and Possibilities for Big Data Use in Travel Demand Forecasting Chapter IV. Big-Data-based Empirical Analysis of Interreional Travel Patterns 1. Empirical Analysis I: Using TCS Data to Analyze Dynamic Travel Demand Patterns 2. Empirical Analysis II: Analysis of Peack and Off-peak Duration Times from Time-of-Day Expressway Traffic Data 3. Empirical Analysis III: Using Mobile Communications User Data to Examine Weekend Conversion Coefficients   Chapter V. Conclusion and Policy Suggestions 1. Policy Applications for Big Data 2. Future Tasks?  
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